Polygot is a combination drug. Ergotamine is a natural ergot alkaloid, increases the tone of dilated extracranial arteries, affects serotonin receptors. Caffeine accelerates and increases the absorption of ergotamine. Currently, several pharmacological groups of drugs are used to relieve migraine attacks.
- Drugs with non-specific mechanism of action include simple (paracetamol, codeine, analgin) and combined analgesics (Polygot, Solpadein, Cafergot), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketorolac).
- Drugs with a specific mechanism of action in turn include two classes: non-selective 5-HT1 receptor agonists (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine) and selective 5-HT1B\1D receptor agonists (triptans).
One of the most common forms of headache is migraine, which affects about 13% of the world’s population, mostly women. Migraine is a very severe disease and represents a significant burden to society and, above all, to patients who suffer from frequent attacks of headache. Unlike many other types of headache, migraine is characterized by predominantly severe attacks with severe disadaptation, impaired ability to work and daily functioning. According to data of a large-scale study of the American Migraine Study II, on the days of attacks, about 53% of patients completely lose the ability to work. On average, each migraine patient loses 3.2 working days per year. The proportion of patients who have to continue working at the time of a headache attack has a more than 46% reduction in work activity. Therefore, the vast majority of patients (about 80%) have to take pain medication during almost every attack. It is for this reason that migraine headaches are the fourth most frequent reason for seeking emergency care, accounting for 1-3% of all cases. This is often due not only to severe, prolonged, or poorly manageable headaches, but also to the many unusual, difficult-to-tolerate symptoms that almost always accompany migraine pain.
There are two main strategies for treating migraine: migraine attack control and prophylactic treatment. The goals of preventive treatment are to reduce the frequency, intensity and duration of attacks, to reduce the need for headache medication, and to increase adaptation and daily functioning. Prophylactic treatment is not indicated for all patients, but only for those who suffer from frequent attacks or attacks that are accompanied by severe disadaptation, and in cases when patients themselves prefer preventive treatment. In contrast, attack control is necessary for virtually all patients, both those who have frequent attacks and those who have infrequent attacks. The goal of migraine attack control is to eliminate the headache and associated symptoms, and to prevent the possibility of pain recurrence.